Alexander pope essay on criticism online dating updating slackware 13
The doctrine of a world-soul in a highly abstract form is met with as early as the eighth century before Christ, when we find it described as "the unseen seer, the unheard hearer, the unthought thinker, the unknown knower, the Eternal in which space is woven and which is woven in it." In Greece, on the other hand, the first essays of philosophy took a positive and somewhat materialistic direction, inherited from the pre-philosophic age, from Homer and the early Greek religion.
In Homer, while the distinction of soul and body is recognized, the soul is hardly conceived as possessing a substantial existence of its own.
If there be a life after death, clearly the agent or subject of our vital activities must be capable of an existence separate from the body.
The belief in an animating principle in some sense distinct from the body is an almost inevitable inference from the observed facts of life.
Even uncivilized peoples arrive at the concept of the soul almost without reflection, certainly without any severe mental effort.
The mysteries of birth and death, the lapse of conscious life during sleep and in swooning, even the commonest operations of imagination and memory, which abstract a man from his bodily presence even while awake-all such facts invincibly suggest the existence of something besides the visible organism, internal to it, but to a large extent independent of it, and leading a life of its own.
Various theories as to the nature of the soul have claimed to be reconcilable with the tenet of immortality, but it is a sure instinct that leads us to suspect every attack on the substantiality or spirituality of the soul as an assault on the belief in existence after death.
The soul may be defined as the ultimate internal principle by which we think, feel, and will, and by which our bodies are animated.
The Pythagoreans taught that the soul is a harmony, its essence consisting in those perfect mathematical ratios which are the law of the universe and the music of the heavenly spheres.It is composed of two elements, one an element of "sameness" ( tauton ), corresponding to the universal and intelligible order of truth, and the other an element of distinction or "otherness" ( thateron ), corresponding to the world of sensible and particular existences.The individual human soul is constructed on the same plan.Theology, physics, and mental science were not as yet distinguished.It is only with the rise of dialectic and the growing recognition of the problem of knowledge that a genuinely psychological theory became possible.
Severed from the body, it is a mere shadow, incapable of energetic life.